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   3  ---------------------
   5   * Requirements and notes
   6   * Optional server requirements
   7   * Installation
   8   * Building and customizing your site
   9   * Multisite configuration
  10   * More information
  13  ----------------------
  15  Drupal requires:
  17  - A web server. Apache (version 2.0 or greater) is recommended.
  18  - PHP 5.2.4 (or greater) (http://www.php.net/).
  19  - One of the following databases:
  20    - MySQL 5.0.15 (or greater) (http://www.mysql.com/).
  21    - MariaDB 5.1.44 (or greater) (http://mariadb.org/). MariaDB is a fully
  22      compatible drop-in replacement for MySQL.
  23    - PostgreSQL 8.3 (or greater) (http://www.postgresql.org/).
  24    - SQLite 3.4.2 (or greater) (http://www.sqlite.org/).
  26  For more detailed information about Drupal requirements, including a list of
  27  PHP extensions and configurations that are required, see "System requirements"
  28  (http://drupal.org/requirements) in the Drupal.org online documentation.
  30  For detailed information on how to configure a test server environment using a
  31  variety of operating systems and web servers, see "Local server setup"
  32  (http://drupal.org/node/157602) in the Drupal.org online documentation.
  34  Note that all directories mentioned in this document are always relative to the
  35  directory of your Drupal installation, and commands are meant to be run from
  36  this directory (except for the initial commands that create that directory).
  39  ----------------------------
  41  - If you want to use Drupal's "Clean URLs" feature on an Apache web server, you
  42    will need the mod_rewrite module and the ability to use local .htaccess
  43    files. For Clean URLs support on IIS, see "Clean URLs with IIS"
  44    (http://drupal.org/node/3854) in the Drupal.org online documentation.
  46  - If you plan to use XML-based services such as RSS aggregation, you will need
  47    PHP's XML extension. This extension is enabled by default on most PHP
  48    installations.
  50  - To serve gzip compressed CSS and JS files on an Apache web server, you will
  51    need the mod_headers module and the ability to use local .htaccess files.
  53  - Some Drupal functionality (e.g., checking whether Drupal and contributed
  54    modules need updates, RSS aggregation, etc.) require that the web server be
  55    able to go out to the web and download information. If you want to use this
  56    functionality, you need to verify that your hosting provider or server
  57    configuration allows the web server to initiate outbound connections. Most web
  58    hosting setups allow this.
  61  ------------
  63  1. Download and extract Drupal.
  65     You can obtain the latest Drupal release from http://drupal.org -- the files
  66     are available in .tar.gz and .zip formats and can be extracted using most
  67     compression tools.
  69     To download and extract the files, on a typical Unix/Linux command line, use
  70     the following commands (assuming you want version x.y of Drupal in .tar.gz
  71     format):
  73       wget http://drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-x.y.tar.gz
  74       tar -zxvf drupal-x.y.tar.gz
  76     This will create a new directory drupal-x.y/ containing all Drupal files and
  77     directories. Then, to move the contents of that directory into a directory
  78     within your web server's document root or your public HTML directory,
  79     continue with this command:
  81       mv drupal-x.y/* drupal-x.y/.htaccess /path/to/your/installation
  83  2. Optionally, download a translation.
  85     By default, Drupal is installed in English, and further languages may be
  86     installed later. If you prefer to install Drupal in another language
  87     initially:
  89     - Download a translation file for the correct Drupal version and language
  90       from the translation server: http://localize.drupal.org/translate/downloads
  92     - Place the file into your installation profile's translations directory.
  93       For instance, if you are using the Standard installation profile,
  94       move the .po file into the directory:
  96         profiles/standard/translations/
  98     For detailed instructions, visit http://drupal.org/localize
 100  3. Create the Drupal database.
 102     Because Drupal stores all site information in a database, you must create
 103     this database in order to install Drupal, and grant Drupal certain database
 104     privileges (such as the ability to create tables). For details, consult
 105     INSTALL.mysql.txt, INSTALL.pgsql.txt, or INSTALL.sqlite.txt. You may also
 106     need to consult your web hosting provider for instructions specific to your
 107     web host.
 109     Take note of the username, password, database name, and hostname as you
 110     create the database. You will enter this information during the install.
 112  4. Run the install script.
 114     To run the install script, point your browser to the base URL of your
 115     website (e.g., http://www.example.com).
 117     You will be guided through several screens to set up the database, add the
 118     site maintenance account (the first user, also known as user/1), and provide
 119     basic web site settings.
 121     During installation, several files and directories need to be created, which
 122     the install script will try to do automatically. However, on some hosting
 123     environments, manual steps are required, and the install script will tell
 124     you that it cannot proceed until you fix certain issues. This is normal and
 125     does not indicate a problem with your server.
 127     The most common steps you may need to perform are:
 129     a. Missing files directory.
 131        The install script will attempt to create a file storage directory in
 132        the default location at sites/default/files (the location of the files
 133        directory may be changed after Drupal is installed).
 135        If auto-creation fails, you can make it work by changing permissions on
 136        the sites/default directory so that the web server can create the files
 137        directory within it for you. (If you are creating a multisite
 138        installation, substitute the correct sites directory for sites/default;
 139        see the Multisite Configuration section of this file, below.)
 141        For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can grant everyone
 142        (including the web server) permission to write to the sites/default
 143        directory with this command:
 145          chmod a+w sites/default
 147        Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
 148        Sample command:
 150          chmod go-w sites/default
 152        Alternatively, instead of allowing the web server to create the files
 153        directory for you as described above, you can create it yourself. Sample
 154        commands from a Unix/Linux command line:
 156          mkdir sites/default/files
 157          chmod a+w sites/default/files
 159     b. Missing settings file.
 161        Drupal will try to automatically create a settings.php configuration file,
 162        which is normally in the directory sites/default (to avoid problems when
 163        upgrading, Drupal is not packaged with this file). If auto-creation fails,
 164        you will need to create this file yourself, using the file
 165        sites/default/default.settings.php as a template.
 167        For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can make a copy of the
 168        default.settings.php file with the command:
 170          cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/default/settings.php
 172        Next, grant write privileges to the file to everyone (including the web
 173        server) with the command:
 175          chmod a+w sites/default/settings.php
 177        Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
 178        Sample command:
 180          chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
 182     c. Write permissions after install.
 184        The install script will attempt to write-protect the settings.php file and
 185        the sites/default directory after saving your configuration. If this
 186        fails, you will be notified, and you can do it manually. Sample commands
 187        from a Unix/Linux command line:
 189          chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
 190          chmod go-w sites/default
 192  5. Verify that the site is working.
 194     When the install script finishes, you will be logged in with the site
 195     maintenance account on a "Welcome" page. If the default Drupal theme is not
 196     displaying properly and links on the page result in "Page Not Found" errors,
 197     you may be experiencing problems with clean URLs. Visit
 198     http://drupal.org/getting-started/clean-urls to troubleshoot.
 200  6. Change file system storage settings (optional).
 202     The files directory created in step 4 is the default file system path used to
 203     store all uploaded files, as well as some temporary files created by
 204     Drupal. After installation, you can modify the file system path to store
 205     uploaded files in a different location.
 207     It is not necessary to modify this path, but you may wish to change it if:
 209     - Your site runs multiple Drupal installations from a single codebase (modify
 210       the file system path of each installation to a different directory so that
 211       uploads do not overlap between installations).
 213     - Your site runs on a number of web servers behind a load balancer or reverse
 214       proxy (modify the file system path on each server to point to a shared file
 215       repository).
 217     - You want to restrict access to uploaded files.
 219     To modify the file system path:
 221     a. Ensure that the new location for the path exists and is writable by the
 222        web server. For example, to create a new directory named uploads and grant
 223        write permissions, use the following commands on a Unix/Linux command
 224        line:
 226          mkdir uploads
 227          chmod a+w uploads
 229     b. Navigate to Administration > Configuration > Media > File system, and
 230        enter the desired path. Note that if you want to use private file storage,
 231        you need to first enter the path for private files and save the
 232        configuration, and then change the "Default download method" setting and
 233        save again.
 235     Changing the file system path after files have been uploaded may cause
 236     unexpected problems on an existing site. If you modify the file system path
 237     on an existing site, remember to copy all files from the original location
 238     to the new location.
 240  7. Revoke documentation file permissions (optional).
 242     Some administrators suggest making the documentation files, especially
 243     CHANGELOG.txt, non-readable so that the exact version of Drupal you are
 244     running is slightly more difficult to determine. If you wish to implement
 245     this optional security measure, from a Unix/Linux command line you can use
 246     the following command:
 248       chmod a-r CHANGELOG.txt
 250     Note that the example only affects CHANGELOG.txt. To completely hide all
 251     documentation files from public view, repeat this command for each of the
 252     Drupal documentation files in the installation directory, substituting the
 253     name of each file for CHANGELOG.txt in the example.
 255     For more information on setting file permissions, see "Modifying Linux,
 256     Unix, and Mac file permissions" (http://drupal.org/node/202483) or
 257     "Modifying Windows file permissions" (http://drupal.org/node/202491) in the
 258     Drupal.org online documentation.
 260  8. Set up independent "cron" maintenance jobs.
 262     Many Drupal modules have tasks that must be run periodically, including the
 263     Search module (building and updating the index used for keyword searching),
 264     the Aggregator module (retrieving feeds from other sites), and the System
 265     module (performing routine maintenance and pruning of database tables). These
 266     tasks are known as "cron maintenance tasks", named after the Unix/Linux
 267     "cron" utility.
 269     When you install Drupal, its built-in cron feature is enabled, which
 270     automatically runs the cron tasks periodically, triggered by people visiting
 271     pages of your site. You can configure the built-in cron feature by navigating
 272     to Administration > Configuration > System > Cron.
 274     It is also possible to run the cron tasks independent of site visits; this is
 275     recommended for most sites. To do this, you will need to set up an automated
 276     process to visit the page cron.php on your site, which executes the cron
 277     tasks.
 279     The URL of the cron.php page requires a "cron key" to protect against
 280     unauthorized access. Your site's cron key is automatically generated during
 281     installation and is specific to your site. The full URL of the page, with the
 282     cron key, is available in the "Cron maintenance tasks" section of the Status
 283     report page at Administration > Reports > Status report.
 285     As an example for how to set up this automated process, you can use the
 286     crontab utility on Unix/Linux systems. The following crontab line uses the
 287     wget command to visit the cron.php page, and runs each hour, on the hour:
 289     0 * * * * wget -O - -q -t 1 http://example.com/cron.php?cron_key=YOURKEY
 291     Replace the text "http://example.com/cron.php?cron_key=YOURKEY" in the
 292     example with the full URL displayed under "Cron maintenance tasks" on the
 293     "Status report" page.
 295     More information about cron maintenance tasks is available at
 296     http://drupal.org/cron, and sample cron shell scripts can be found in the
 297     scripts/ directory. (Note that these scripts must be customized like the
 298     above example, to add your site-specific cron key and domain name.)
 301  ----------------------------------
 303  A new installation of Drupal defaults to a very basic configuration. To extend
 304  your site, you use "modules" and "themes". A module is a plugin that adds
 305  functionality to Drupal, while a theme changes the look of your site. The core
 306  of Drupal provides several optional modules and themes, and you can download
 307  more at http://drupal.org/project/modules and http://drupal.org/project/themes
 309  Do not mix downloaded or custom modules and themes with Drupal's core modules
 310  and themes. Drupal's modules and themes are located in the top-level modules and
 311  themes directories, while the modules and themes you add to Drupal are normally
 312  placed in the sites/all/modules and sites/all/themes directories. If you run a
 313  multisite installation, you can also place modules and themes in the
 314  site-specific directories -- see the Multisite Configuration section, below.
 316  Never edit Drupal's core modules and themes; instead, use the hooks available in
 317  the Drupal API. To modify the behavior of Drupal, develop a module as described
 318  at http://drupal.org/developing/modules. To modify the look of Drupal, create a
 319  subtheme as described at http://drupal.org/node/225125, or a completely new
 320  theme as described at http://drupal.org/documentation/theme
 323  -----------------------
 325  A single Drupal installation can host several Drupal-powered sites, each with
 326  its own individual configuration.
 328  Additional site configurations are created in subdirectories within the 'sites'
 329  directory. Each subdirectory must have a 'settings.php' file, which specifies
 330  the configuration settings. The easiest way to create additional sites is to
 331  copy the 'default' directory and modify the 'settings.php' file as appropriate.
 332  The new directory name is constructed from the site's URL. The configuration for
 333  www.example.com could be in 'sites/example.com/settings.php' (note that 'www.'
 334  should be omitted if users can access your site at http://example.com/).
 336  Sites do not have to have a different domain. You can also use subdomains and
 337  subdirectories for Drupal sites. For example, example.com, sub.example.com, and
 338  sub.example.com/site3 can all be defined as independent Drupal sites. The setup
 339  for a configuration such as this would look like the following:
 341    sites/default/settings.php
 342    sites/example.com/settings.php
 343    sites/sub.example.com/settings.php
 344    sites/sub.example.com.site3/settings.php
 346  When searching for a site configuration (for example www.sub.example.com/site3),
 347  Drupal will search for configuration files in the following order, using the
 348  first configuration it finds:
 350    sites/www.sub.example.com.site3/settings.php
 351    sites/sub.example.com.site3/settings.php
 352    sites/example.com.site3/settings.php
 353    sites/www.sub.example.com/settings.php
 354    sites/sub.example.com/settings.php
 355    sites/example.com/settings.php
 356    sites/default/settings.php
 358  If you are installing on a non-standard port, the port number is treated as the
 359  deepest subdomain. For example: http://www.example.com:8080/ could be loaded
 360  from sites/8080.www.example.com/. The port number will be removed according to
 361  the pattern above if no port-specific configuration is found, just like a real
 362  subdomain.
 364  Each site configuration can have its own site-specific modules and themes in
 365  addition to those installed in the standard 'modules' and 'themes' directories.
 366  To use site-specific modules or themes, simply create a 'modules' or 'themes'
 367  directory within the site configuration directory. For example, if
 368  sub.example.com has a custom theme and a custom module that should not be
 369  accessible to other sites, the setup would look like this:
 371    sites/sub.example.com/
 372      settings.php
 373      themes/custom_theme
 374      modules/custom_module
 376  NOTE: for more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration
 377  settings, consult http://drupal.org/getting-started/6/install/multi-site
 379  For more information on configuring Drupal's file system path in a multisite
 380  configuration, see step 6 above.
 383  ----------------
 385  - See the Drupal.org online documentation:
 386    http://drupal.org/documentation
 388  - For a list of security announcements, see the "Security advisories" page at
 389    http://drupal.org/security (available as an RSS feed). This page also
 390    describes how to subscribe to these announcements via e-mail.
 392  - For information about the Drupal security process, or to find out how to
 393    report a potential security issue to the Drupal security team, see the
 394    "Security team" page at http://drupal.org/security-team
 396  - For information about the wide range of available support options, visit
 397    http://drupal.org and click on Community and Support in the top or bottom
 398    navigation.

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